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Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

Characterization and comparison of transcriptional activities of the retinoid X receptors by various organotin compounds in three prosobranch gastropods; Thais clavigera, Nucella lapillus and Babylonia japonica.


PMID 29621670

Abstract

Two cDNAs of RXR were isolated, for the first time, from the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica, and the transcriptional activities were tested in vitro to compare with other gastropod (Thais clavigera and Nucella lapillus) RXR isoforms. The transcriptional activities of all of these RXR isoforms were significantly induced by mammalian RXR agonist, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA). The transcriptional activity of T. clavigera RXR-1 was also examined by using 9cRA and 16 organotin compounds, and significant ligand-dependent transactivations were observed by 9cRA and 5 organotins (tributyltin (TBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), tripropyltin (TPrT), tricyclohexyltin (TcHT) and triphenyltin (TPhT)). These 5 organotins also induced significant transcriptional activities in N. lapillus and B. japonica RXR isoforms. These 4 organotins, except for TeBT, have been reported to promote the development of imposex after a month of a single injection each, using female T. clavigera. To investigate the function of gastropod RXR isoforms, the effects of mammalian specific pan-agonist, PA024, and pan-antagonist, HX531, were examined, and significant induction of transcriptional activity by PA024 was demonstrated in these gastropod RXR isoforms. The additions of HX531 significantly suppressed the transcriptional activities of these gastropod RXR isoforms by 9cRA and 5 organotins. Using the mammalian two retinoic acid response elements, the transcriptional activities by 2 agonists, 9cRA and PA024, were different among the RXR isoforms of each gastropod species. With retinoid X response element (RXRE), transcriptional activities of TcRXR-1, BjRXR-1, and NlRXRa were significantly higher than those of TcRXR-2, BjRXR-2, and NlRXRb. Transcriptional activities of TcRXR-2, BjRXR-2, and NlRXRb, however, were significantly higher than those of TcRXR-1, BjRXR-1, and NlRXRa with thyroid hormone response element, TREpal. Thus, induction of imposex in prosobranch gastropods is strongly suggested to be triggered by 9cRA and certain organotins, such as TBT and TPhT through the activation of RXRs. These gastropod RXRs might control the different gene transcription by forming homo- or heterodimer complex with their own isoforms. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the fundamentals of the endocrine system in molluscs, particularly on RXR signaling pathway.