Discrepant effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on oxidative stress and energy metabolism in the livers and kidneys of mice.

PMID 29702342


Endosulfan, an organochloride pesticide, has been used for many commercial purposes. Endosulfan is composed of two isomers, α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan. In biological and soil systems, endosulfan is metabolized into endosulfan sulfate. In this study, the different toxicological effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on the livers and kidneys of mice were comprehensively investigated. The results demonstrated that both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate disturbed the hepatic and renal antioxidant systems. Furthermore, 1H NMR metabolomics analysis revealed that endogenous metabolites involved in oxidative stress and energy metabolism were altered after exposure to these compounds. In the liver, the changes in hepatic endogenous metabolites and the induction of hepatic CYP450 mRNA isoforms were similar among mice treated with the three compounds, and the sulfate metabolite was the exclusive exogenous compound detected. Therefore, the metabolism of α- and β-endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate is likely the main cause of toxicological effects in the livers of mice. However, in kidneys, the changes in the metabolome and in CYP450 mRNA expression induced by α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan were stereoselective. Additionally, endosulfan sulfate, which induced a significant increase of renal Cyp3a11, showed a more robust disturbance of renal metabolites than either of the two isomers. These findings revealed that more attention should be given to the toxicological evaluation of endosulfan sulfate in the future.