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Human genetics

The role of fluorinated pyrimidine analogues in the induction of the in vitro expression of the fragile X chromosome.


PMID 2970425

Abstract

The modes of action of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) were studied in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from normal volunteer donors and a fragile X patient. In both cell types, FdUrd and FdCyd inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations of 3 x 10(-8) M. Thymidylate synthetase was identified as the decisive target for the action of both FdUrd and FdCyd, as judged from the following observations: First, addition of thymidine to the culture medium was able to counteract both FdUrd and FdCyd toxicities, whereas addition of dCyd had no observable effect. Second, inhibition of the in situ thymidylate synthetase activity measured as an increase in the level of [3H]-dThd incorporation coincided with the inhibition of cell proliferation. Third, the inhibition of the thymidylate synthetase-dependent incorporation of [3H]-dUrd into newly synthesized DNA coincided with the inhibition of cell proliferation. The effects of FdUrd and FdCyd on the in vitro expression of fragile site Xq27 of fragile X chromosomes was shown to be based on the depletion of the intracellular pool of thymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), as judged from the following observations: First, both the FdUrd- and FdCyd-dependent induction of site Xq27 coincided with the antiproliferative effects of the respective fluoropyrimidines. Second, addition of thymidine (dThd) to the culture medium both prevented the expression of site Xq27 and neutralized the cytotoxicity of FdUrd and of FdCyd. On the basis of these findings, we provide further evidence for the concept that the fragile X site is located in an AT-rich region.

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F5307
5−Fluoro−2′−deoxycytidine, ≥98% (HPLC), powder
C9H12FN3O4