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Food chemistry

Gypenosides as natural emulsifiers for oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with astaxanthin: Insights of formulation, stability and release properties.


PMID 29739600

Abstract

The formulation, physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AST) loaded oil-in-water nanoemulsions fabricated using gypenosides (GPs) as natural emulsifiers was investigated and compared with a synthetic emulsifier (Tween 20) that is commonly applied in food industry. GPs were capable of producing nanoemulsions with a small volume mean diameter (d4,3 = 125 ± 2 nm), which was similar to those prepared using Tween 20 (d4,3 = 145 ± 6 nm) under the same high-pressure homogenization conditions. GPs-stabilized nanoemulsions were stable against droplet growth over a range of pH (6-8) and thermal treatments (60-120 °C). Conversely, instability occurred under acidic (pH 3-5) and high ionic strength (25-100 mM CaCl2) conditions. In comparison with Tween 20, GPs were more effective at inhibiting AST from degradation during 30 days of storage at both 5 and 25 °C. However, GPs led to lower lipid digestion and AST bioaccessibility from nanoemulsions than did Tween 20.

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