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Journal of applied microbiology

Pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial activity of a new carvacrol-based product against a human pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni.


PMID 29770558

Abstract

In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to test a new carvacrol-based product designed to delay the carvacrol release so that it could reach the caeca of broiler chickens in order to control Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a constituent of oregano and thyme essential oil, has been demonstrated against C. jejuni in vitro, and this compound was found beneficial for broiler growth. Here, we tested a new liquid formulation that did not change the antibacterial efficacy of carvacrol against C. jejuni in vitro, as assessed by broth microdilution. The mode of action of carvacrol also remained unchanged as illustrated by electronic microscopy. A pharmacokinetic assay monitored carvacrol of the solid galenic formulation in the avian digestive tract and this showed that this compound was mainly found in the last part (caeca, large intestine) and in the droppings. Extremely low concentrations of free carvacrol were present in blood plasma, with larger amounts of carvacrol metabolites: carvacrol glucuronide and sulphate. A qPCR analysis showed that the solid galenic form of carvacrol added at 5 kg per tonne of food (i.e. 9·5 mg of carvacrol per kg of bodyweight per day) significantly decreased the C. jejuni caecal load by 1·5 log. The new liquid formulation was as effective as unformulated carvacrol in vitro. In vivo the solid galenic form seems to delay the carvacrol release into the caeca and presented interesting results on C. jejuni load after 35 days. Results suggested that this product could be promising to control Campylobacter contamination of broilers.

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