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Fungal biology

Evaluation of diuron tolerance and biotransformation by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum.


PMID 29801791

Abstract

The white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated for its capability to tolerate and to degrade the herbicide diuron. Diuron at a subtoxic concentration was added at the start of the cultivation in glucose liquid stationary cultures. Under this condition diuron was a laccase inducer. Almost 50% of the initially present diuron was removed after 15 d of cultivation. Two diuron metabolites were found N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methylurea (DCPMU) and 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU). The addition of the cytochrome P450 inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide reduced significantly the capability of the fungus in degrading diuron. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased in the mycelial extracts by the presence of diuron. On the other hand, diuron did not cause any significant alteration in the levels of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, laccase could also degrade diuron in vitro and this degradation was increased by the addition of synthetic mediators, 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and acetylacetone. Significant reduction in the toxicity, as evaluated by the Lactuca sativa bioassay, was observed after G. lucidum treatment. In conclusion, G. lucidum is able to metabolize diuron by intra- and extracellular mechanisms, without the accumulation of toxic products.

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