Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity

Effects of Vitamin D3 on the NADPH Oxidase and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in an Animal Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia.

PMID 29849881


Decreased blood flow in the brain leads to a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme family that has the physiological function to produce ROS. NOX2 and NOX4 overexpression is associated with aggravated ischemic injury, while NOX2/4-deficient mice had reduced stroke size. Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributes to tissue damage. The active form of vitamin D3 expresses neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. The present study examines the effects of the vitamin D3 pretreatment on the oxidative stress parameters and the expression of NOX subunits, MMP9, microglial marker Iba1, and vitamin D receptor (VDR), in the cortex and hippocampus of Mongolian gerbils subjected to ten minutes of global cerebral ischemia, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. The ischemia/reperfusion procedure has induced oxidative stress, changes in the expression of NOX2 subunits and MMP9 in the brain, and increased MMP9 activity in the serum of experimental animals. Pretreatment with vitamin D3 was especially effective on NOX2 subunits, MMP9, and the level of malondialdehyde and superoxide anion. These results outline the significance of the NOX and MMP9 investigation in brain ischemia and the importance of adequate vitamin D supplementation in ameliorating the injury caused by I/R.