Cellular signalling

Trapidil induces osteogenesis by upregulating the signaling of bone morphogenetic proteins.

PMID 29879471


Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling has been shown to inhibit osteogenesis. However, therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting PDGF signaling to bone regeneration in vivo and the specific mechanisms by which PDGFR signaling inhibits osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the osteogenic effect of inhibiting PDGFR using trapidil, a PDGFR antagonist, in vivo and in vitro, and evaluated its mechanisms. A rat calvarial defect model was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histology to determine the pro-osteogenic effect of trapidil in vivo. In addition, primary mouse calvarial osteoblast precursors were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium with trapidil to study the mechanisms. Trapidil greatly promoted bone regeneration in a rat calvarial defect model and osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblast precursors. For the mechanisms, trapidil induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/9 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) leading to enhance expression of Runx2, crucial transcription factor for osteogenesis. The pro-osteogenic effects of trapidil were inhibited by LDN193189, specific inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor, ALK2 and ALK3, and by depletion of ALK3, and treatment with noggin, an antagonist of BMPs. Moreover, trapidil showed a synergistic effect with BMP2 on osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, trapidil induced BMPR activity through upregulation of BMP signaling, leading to promoted osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Attenuated BMPR activity may be involved in the inhibition of osteogenesis by PDGFR signaling.