Journal of hazardous materials

Sono-activated persulfate oxidation of diclofenac: Degradation, kinetics, pathway and contribution of the different radicals involved.

PMID 29935458


Degradation of a diclofenac aqueous solution was performed using persulfate anions activated by ultrasound. The objective of this study was to analyze different parameters affecting the diclofenac (DCF) removal reaction by the ultrasonic persulfate (US/PS) process and to evaluate the role played by various intermediate oxidative species such as hydroxyl- and sulfate radicals, superoxide radical anion or singlet oxygen in the removal process as well as to determine a possible reaction pathway. The effects of pH, initial persulfate anion concentration, ultrasonic amplitude and temperature on DCF degradation were examined. Sulfate and hydroxyl radicals were involved in the main reaction pathway of diclofenac. Diclofenac amide and three hydroxy-diclofenac isomers (3´-hydroxy diclofenac, 4´-hydroxy diclofenac and 5-hydroxy diclofenac) were identified as reaction intermediates.

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