Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology

Metformin and FTY720 Synergistically Induce Apoptosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells.

PMID 30032136


Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) invariably relapse with chemotherapy-resistant disease, underscoring the need for new therapeutic options that bypass these resistance mechanisms. Metformin is a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug with direct antitumor activity against various tumor cell lines. FTY720, also known as fingolimod, is an immune-modulating agent approved by the FDA as oral medication to treat the relapsing form of multiple sclerosis (MS). In recent years, FTY720 has attracted attention due to its anti-tumor activity. To explore an optimized combinational therapy, interactions between metformin and FTY720 were examined in MM cells. MTT assays were employed to assess the viability of MM cells. An apoptotic nucleosome assay was employed to measure apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) and cellular levels of ROS were measured by flow cytometry. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of mRNAs. Western blotting assays were applied to measure the levels of proteins involved in different signaling pathways. Coadministration of metformin and FTY720 synergistically inhibited the proliferation of MM cells. Increased levels of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP were detected after cotreatment with metformin and FTY720. These events were associated with modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, loss of MMP, ER stress induction, and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The metformin/FTY720 regimen markedly induced ROS generation; moreover, apoptosis, ER stress and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/ mTOR were attenuated by the ROS scavenger NAC. Exposure to metformin in combination with FTY720 potently induces apoptosis in MM cells in a ROS-dependent manner, suggesting that a strategy combining these agents warrants further investigation in MM.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

EHU114901 MISSION® esiRNA, esiRNA human ATF4 (esiRNA1)