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Enzyme and microbial technology

Characterization of an Anaerobic, Thermophilic, Alkaliphilic, High Lignocellulosic Biomass-Degrading Bacterial Community, ISHI-3, Isolated from Biocompost.


PMID 30143202

Abstract

The generation of a complex microbial consortium is a promising approach for efficient biomass decomposition. An anaerobic thermophilic alkaliphilic microbial consortium with efficient degradation ability was screened from bovine manure compost using non-pretreated milling corn stover (CS) and rice straw (RS). A stable microbial consortium ISHI-3 with high degradation ability for CS and RS was isolated by the roll tube technique. ISHI-3 comprised Herbivorax saccincola and bacteria belonging to the classes Pelotomaculum, Tepidanaerobacter, and Tepidimicrobium, as determined by DGGE of the PCR-generated 16S rRNA genes. Furthermore, metagenomics analysis using a 16S rRNA library was carried out to determine the bacterial distribution during degradation of CS and RS. H. saccincola and bacteria belonging to Pelotomaculum were relatively abundant in the beginning to middle periods of culture with CS and RS whereas bacteria belonging to Tepidanaerobacter and Tepidimicrobium gradually increased in the population during the later stages. To understand the role of non-cellulolytic bacteria in the consortium, novel strains ET1 and GL4, which were most closely related to Tepidimicrobium ferriphilum and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans, were isolated from ISHI-3. Based on their carbon source usage, morphology, and phylogenetic analysis, we propose that strains ET1 and GL4 should be classified as a novel genus or species. Bacteria ET1 and GL4 can utilize different organic compounds as carbon and energy sources such as organic acids, alcohols, sugars, and amino acids, showing a preference for organic acids and alcohols rather than sugars such as glucose and cellobiose. These results indicated that ET1 and GL4 help to accelerate efficient lignocellulose degradation of H. saccincola.