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Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP

Comparison of xenobiotic metabolism in phase I oxidation and phase II conjugation between rats and bird species.


PMID 30176376

Abstract

There have been many reports regarding toxic chemicals in birds. Chemicals are mainly metabolized in the liver through phase I oxidation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II conjugation by conjugated enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), sulfotransferase (SULT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), etc. Xenobiotic metabolism differs among bird species, but little detailed information is available. In the present study, the four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), pyrene, was used as a model xenobiotic to clarify the characteristics of xenobiotic metabolism in birds compared with laboratory animals by in vivo and in vitro studies. Plasma, bile, and excreta (urine and feces) were collected after oral administration of pyrene and analyzed to clarify xenobiotic metabolism ability in chickens and quails. Interestingly, pyrenediol-glucuronide sulfate (PYDOGS) and pyrenediol-diglucuronide (PYDOGG) were present in chickens and quails but not in rats. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) of pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) were higher than those of the parent molecule, pyrene, while the elimination half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT) were faster than those of the parent pyrene. With regard to sulfation of 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), the maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) of rat liver cytosol were greater than those of chicken and quail liver cytosol. Furthermore, Vmax/Km of UGT activity in rat liver microsomes was also greater than those of chicken and quail liver microsomes. Characterization of xenobiotic metabolism revealed species differences between birds and mammals, raising concerns about exposure to various xenobiotics in the environment.

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