Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Presence of calpain-5 in mitochondria.

PMID 30195492


Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that are widely distributed in animal tissues and modulate a variety of cellular processes. There are 15 members of the calpain family in mammals. In animal cells, there are three types of calpains, viz., calpain-1, calpain-2, and calpain-10 in the mitochondria. The three types of calpains have been shown to play significant roles in pathophysiological conditions, including in apoptosis- and necrosis-like cell death. One of the severe retinal diseases, autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy, is known to be induced by mutations of the calpain-5 gene. However, the distribution of calpain-5 in the retina has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the localization of calpain-5 in the porcine retina. We detected calpain-5 in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells using immunohistochemistry. With immunoelectron microscopy, calpain-5 was localized in the mitochondria of photoreceptor cells. Western blot analyses showed that calpain-5 was present in each mitochondrial subfraction. Furthermore, we showed that the molecular weight of mitochondrial calpain-5 was slightly smaller than cytosolic one. Our results demonstrated that a novel mitochondrial calpian, calpain-5, was localized in the mitochondria of retinal photoreceptor cells.

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