Environmental toxicology

Ameliorative effect of Rutin on sodium fluoride-induced hypertension through modulation of Kim-1/NF-κB/Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

PMID 30259632


Sodium fluoride is one of the neglected environmental contaminants. Inorganic fluorides in the environment are found in the air, water, and land. In the study, forty-male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in a group. Group A was the control group which was given normal saline, Group B was exposed to 300 ppm of NaF in drinking water, while Groups C and D received NaF along Rutin (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) orally daily for a week. Administration of NaF alone led to significant increases in blood pressure, and deceased serum nitric oxide. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher expressions of kidney injury molecule I (Kim-1), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), and down regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in rats administered NaF. Rutin co-treatment with NaF normalized blood pressure, lowered Kim-1 and NF-κB expressions, and improved nitric oxide bioavailability.