Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms

Myt1 and Myt1l transcription factors limit proliferation in GBM cells by repressing YAP1 expression.

PMID 30312684


Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1) and Myt1l (Myt1-like) are zinc finger transcription factors that regulate neuronal differentiation. Reduced Myt1l expression has been implicated in glioblastoma (GBM), and the related St18 was originally identified as a potential tumor suppressor for breast cancer. We previously analyzed changes in gene expression in a human GBM cell line with re-expression of either Myt1 or Myt1l. This revealed largely overlapping gene expression changes, suggesting similar function in these cells. Here we show that re-expression of Myt1 or Myt1l reduces proliferation in two different GBM cell lines, activates gene expression programs associated with neuronal differentiation, and limits expression of proliferative and epithelial to mesenchymal transition gene-sets. Consistent with this, expression of both MYT1 and MYT1L is lower in more aggressive glioma sub-types. Examination of the gene expression changes in cells expressing Myt1 or Myt1l suggests that both repress expression of the YAP1 transcriptional coactivator, which functions primarily in the Hippo signaling pathway. Expression of YAP1 and its target genes is reduced in Myt-expressing cells, and there is an inverse correlation between YAP1 and MYT1/MYT1L expression in human brain cancer datasets. Proliferation of GBM cell lines is reduced by lowering YAP1 expression and increased with YAP1 over-expression, which overcomes the anti-proliferative effect of Myt1/Myt1l expression. Finally we show that reducing YAP1 expression in a GBM cell line slows the growth of orthotopic tumor xenografts. Together, our data suggest that Myt1 and Myt1l directly repress expression of YAP1, a protein which promotes proliferation and GBM growth.

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3-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole, 97%