Strong inhibitory effect of furanoses and sugar lactones on beta-galactosidase Escherichia coli.

PMID 3109465


Various sugars and their lactones were tested for their inhibition of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli). L-Ribose, which in the furanose form has a hydroxyl configuration similar to that of D-galactose at positions equivalent to the 3- and 4-positions of D-galactose, was a very strong inhibitor, and D-lyxose, which in the furanose form also resembles D-galactose, was a much better inhibitor than expected. Structural comparisons prelude the pyranose forms of these sugars from being significant contributors to the inhibition, and inhibition at different temperatures (at which there are different furanose concentrations) strongly supported the conclusion that the furanose form is inhibitory. Studies with sugar derivatives that can only be in the furanose form also supported the conclusion. This is the first report of the inhibitory effect of furanose on beta-galactosidase. Lactones were also inhibitory. Every lactone tested was much more inhibitory than was its parent sugar. D-Galactonolactone was especially good. Experiments indicated that it was D-galactono-1,5-lactone rather than D-galactono-1,4-lactone which was inhibitory. Inhibition of beta-galactosidases from mammalian sources by lactones has been reported previously, but this is the first report of the effect of beta-galactosidase from E. coli. Since furanoses in the envelope form are analogous (in some ways) to half-chair or sofa conformations and since lactones with six-membered rings probably have half-chair or sofa conformations, the results indicate that beta-galactosidase probably destabilizes its substrate into a planar conformation of some type and that the galactose in the transition state may, therefore, also be quite planar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)