Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydrophthalic anhydride modification of glutamate dehydrogenase: the construction and activity of heterohexamers.

PMID 3377506


Modification of glutamate dehydrogenase with 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride at pH 8.0 results in the progressive loss of enzymatic activity and a concomitant increase in the negative charge of the protein. Although the rate of inactivation at room temperature is too rapid to allow accurate rate constant determination, modification at 4 degrees C shows that the pseudo-first-order rate constant for inactivation appears to show a saturation effect with increasing reagent concentration, with a maximum of approximately 1 min-1. Control experiments showed that tetrahydrophthalic anhydride was hydrolyzed at a much slower rate, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.041 min-1. Protection studies indicated that inactivation was decreased by the active site ligands, NADP and 2-oxoglutarate. The extents of inactivation, whether assayed with glutamate at pH 7.0 or norvaline at pH 8.0, were the same. Changes in mobility on native gels and isoelectric point were used to follow the incorporated negative charge resulting from modification. Enzyme modified in the presence of protecting ligands (where activity is maintained) showed mobility changes which suggested that a single site of modification was protected. Modified enzyme incorporated 0.78 mol pyridoxal 5-phosphate less than native enzyme, consistent with modification of lysine-126. Enzyme modified under limiting conditions was shown to have a quaternary structure similar to that of the native enzyme, as judged by crosslinking patterns obtained with dimethylpimelimidate. The modified protein is readily resolved from unmodified protein using an NaCl double gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel. The modification is reversed with regain of activity by incubation of the modified enzyme at low pH. We have made use of the recently demonstrated ability of guanidine hydrochloride to dissociate the hexamer of glutamate dehydrogenase into trimers that can then be reassociated to construct heterohexamers of glutamate dehydrogenase, in which one trimer of the heterohexamer contains native subunits while the other has been inactivated by the 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride modification. The heterohexamer is separated from either native or fully modified hexamers by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Significantly, the heterohexamer has little detectable catalytic activity, although activity is regained by reversal of the modification of the one modified trimer in the hexamer. This demonstrates that catalytic site cooperation between trimers in the hexamer of glutamate dehydrogenase is an essential component of the enzymatic activity of this enzyme.

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3,4,5,6-Tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, 95%