American journal of human genetics

Evolutionary implications of the human aldolase-A, -B, -C, and -pseudogene chromosome locations.

PMID 3674018


The aldolase genes represent an ancient gene family with tissue-specific isozymic forms expressed only in vertebrates. The chromosomal locations of the aldolase genes provide insight into their tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression and evolution. DNA probes for the human aldolase-A and -C genes and for an aldolase pseudogene were used to quantify and map the aldolase loci in the haploid human genome. Genomic hybridization of restriction fragments determined that all the aldolase genes exist in single copy in the haploid human genome. Spot-blot analysis of sorted chromosomes mapped human aldolase A to chromosome 16, aldolase C to chromosome 17, the pseudogene to chromosome 10; it previously had mapped the aldolase-B gene to chromosome 9. All loci are unlinked and located on to two pairs of morphologically similar chromosomes, a situation consistent with tetraploidization during isozymic and vertebrate evolution. Sequence comparisons of expressed and flanking regions support this conclusion. These locations on similar chromosome pairs correctly predicted that the aldolase pseudogene arose when sequences from the aldolase-A gene were inserted into the homologous aldolase location on chromosome 10.