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The Journal of biological chemistry

A physicochemical study of protein G, a molecule with unique immunoglobulin G-binding properties.


PMID 3733709

Abstract

Protein G, an IgG-binding molecule, was prepared from the cell walls of a group G streptococcal strain, G-148. The protein could be extracted from the cells by papain digestion and purified by the sequential use of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, affinity chromatography on Sepharose-coupled human IgG, and gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200. Two protein bands with similar molecular weight, 34,000 and 36,000, were obtained when analyzing the pure protein G on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The yield using this purification scheme was 27% of the protein G solubilized from the cells or 70 micrograms/ml packed bacteria. The Stokes radius and frictional ratio of protein G were determined to 3.53 nm and 1.64, respectively, suggesting an elongated fibrous molecule. The protein did not contain any intrachain disulfide bonds. The amino acid composition of protein G was determined and was found to be different from that of protein A, the well known staphylococcal IgG-binding protein. The equilibrium constants of the reactions between protein G and human, rabbit, mouse, and goat polyclonal IgG, determined by Scatchard plots, ranged between 1 X 10(10) and 7 X 10(10), for rat polyclonal IgG 1.4 X 10(9), and human monoclonal IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 between 2 X 10(9) and 6 X 10(9). These affinity constants were always greater than the corresponding values for protein A. The binding between protein G and various polyclonal and monoclonal IgG was pH dependent between 2.8 and 10, strongest at pH 4 and 5, and weakest at pH 10.