European journal of biochemistry

Nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and an intronless pseudogene for human lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme.

PMID 3838278


Eight cDNA clones for lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme (LDH-A) were isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library, characterized, and no sequence heterogeneity was found. Four cDNA clones appear to contain nearly full-length cDNA inserts and the complete nucleotide sequence of 1710 base pairs consists of the protein-coding sequence (999 base pairs), the 5' (97 base pairs) and 3' (565 base pairs) untranslated regions and poly(dA) tail (49 base pairs). The predicted amino acid sequence of the human LDH-A polypeptide shows 92% homology (27 differences out of 331 amino acids compared) with that of the pig LDH-A subunit determined by direct protein sequencing [Kiltz et al. (1977) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 358, 123-127]. Human genomic clones containing an LDH-A pseudogene were isolated and the nucleotide sequence of 1635 base pairs from an intronless pseudogene was determined. The presence of two termination codons, two deletions of three nucleotides each and the replacement of three arginine residues at the active site (nos 98, 105 and 168) by other amino acids renders its coding region incapable of producing a functional LDH-A protein. A comparison between human LDH-A cDNA and the pseudogene sequences reveals 12.9% differences (114 transitions, 65 transversions and 36 deletions/insertions). Further, only four out of the 25 dCpdG dinucleotides present in the cDNA sequence remain unchanged, although the sequences possess 87.1% homology.