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Biochemistry

Mode of interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase with strong binding inhibitors: compactin and related compounds.


PMID 3886005

Abstract

The sodium salts of compactin (1) and trans-6-[2-(2,4- dichloro-6-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran- 2-one (3) are inhibitors of yeast beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. The dissociation constants are 0.24 X 10(-9) and 0.28 X 10(-9) M, respectively. Similar values have been reported for HMG-CoA reductase from mammalian sources [Endo, A., Kuroda, M., & Tanzawa, K. (1976) FEBS Lett. 72, 323; Alberts, A. W., et al. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 3957]. The structures of these compounds marginally resemble that of any substrates of HMG-CoA reductase. We, therefore, investigated the basis for the strong interaction between HMG-CoA reductase and these inhibitors. HMG-CoA and coenzyme A (CoASH), but not reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), prevent binding of compactin to the enzyme. HMG-CoA, but not CoASH or NADPH, prevents binding of 3 to the enzyme. We also investigated the inhibitory activity of molecules that resemble structural components of compactin. Compactin consists of a moiety resembling 3,5-dihydroxyvaleric acid that is attached to a decalin structure. The sodium salt of DL-3,5-dihydroxyvaleric acid inhibits HMG-CoA reductase competitively with respect to HMG-CoA and noncompetitively with respect to NADPH. The dissociation constant for DL-3,5-dihydroxyvaleric acid, derived from protection against inactivation of enzyme by iodoacetic acid, is (2.1 +/- 0.9) X 10(-2) M. Two decalin derivatives (structurally identical with or closely related to the decalin moiety of compactin) showed no detectable inhibition. If the lack of inhibition is due to their limited solubility, the dissociation constant of these decalin derivatives may be conservatively estimated to be greater than or equal to 0.5 mM. Simultaneous addition of decalin derivatives and DL-3,5-dihydroxyvaleric acid does not lead to enhanced inhibition. The sodium salt of (E)-6-[2-(2-methoxy-1-naphthalenyl)ethenyl]-3,4,5,6- tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one (6) inhibits HMG-CoA reductase competitively with respect to HMG-CoA and noncompetitively with respect to NADPH. The inhibition constant (vs. HMG-CoA) is 0.8 microM. CoASH does not prevent binding of 6 to enzyme. Compound 6, therefore, behaves analogously to compound 3. We propose that these inhibitors occupy two sites on the enzyme: one site is the hydroxymethylglutaryl binding domain of the enzyme active site and the other site is a hydrophobic pocket located adjacent to the active site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)