The Journal of biological chemistry

Development of sarcoplasmic reticulum in cultured chicken muscle.

PMID 401812


The development of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes was studied in vivo and in tissue culture in chicken pectoralis muscle cells. The concentration of the calcium- and magnesium-activated ATPase measured by selective labeling of the enzyme with [32P]ATP in whole muscle homogenates was found to increase in developing chicken pectoralis muscle in vivo from 0.01 nmol/mg of protein in 12-day embryos to 0.3 to 0.4 nmol/mg of protein in 1-month-old chicks, where it constitutes about 3% of the total protein content of muscle. In cultured muscle cells the concentration of calcium-sensitive phosphoprotein increased from 0.015 nmol/mg of protein at 2 days to 0.04 to 0.05 nmol/mg of protein after 5 days of culture. This amount represents about 0.5% of the protein content of the muscle cells. The accumulation of Ca2+ transport ATPase began during fusion and continued with a linear rate during 8 days of culture. The density of 75 A intramembranous particles seen by freeze-etch electron microscopy on fracture faces of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes is about 4,000/mum2 in adult chick pectoralis muscle but only 400/mum2 in cultured muscle cells in rough proportion to the concentration of Ca2+-sensitive phosphoprotein. The Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentration of the medium and addition of ouabain, caffeine, or the calcium ionophores A23187 and X537A sharply influence the concentration of calcium transport ATPase in cultured muscle cells, parallel with their effect upon cell fusion and growth. These observations are consistent with the proposition that the gene expression leading to the accumulation of Ca2+ transport ATPase during development in culture may be regulated by intracellular ion concentrations.