American journal of veterinary research

Fonofos toxicosis in dairy cows: an accidental poisoning (1977).

PMID 6183997


An accidental poisoning (in 1977) of 28 Holstein cows occurred when approximately 0.9 kg of 25% active ingredient fonofos, O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonothiolothionate, was spilled onto bulk feed in a delivery truck. Eight cows died within 2 days; the remaining 20 were necropsied 29 days later. Of the 8 fatally poisoned, 7 were being fed a high-grain diet and 1 was fed a medium-grain diet. Fonofos concentrations in feed cart and storage bin samples were 100 micrograms/g and 61 micrograms/g, respectively. Tissues from 6 animals were analyzed extensively for fonofos concentrations: 2 had died immediately; the other 4 were in the recovery state when they were necropsied. Rumen contents and liver, kidney, brain, heart, and milk samples were analyzed. Fonofos concentrations in these samples were significantly higher in the cows fatally affected than in the cows necropsied 3 weeks later. The oral acute LD50 and LD1 of fonofos in Holstein cows were calculated by the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method to be 1.30 and 0.84 mg/kg, respectively, with a 95% confidence range of +/- 0.20 mg/kg.

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