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Diabetologia

Mechanisms of streptozotocin- and alloxan-induced damage in rat B cells.


PMID 6241574

Abstract

In studies to evaluate possible inhibitors of the B-cell toxin, streptozotocin, the superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase, did not prevent or reduce the toxic effects of streptozotocin as determined by loss of insulin secretion from rat pancreatic B cells in monolayer culture. However, 1,1-dimethyl urea, a scavenger of the hydroxyl radical, did afford significant protection. Both scavengers diminished the cytotoxic effects of alloxan. The inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide, also were effective in attenuating alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced B-cell toxicity. Tests of the hydroxyl-scavenging ability of the three streptozotocin antagonists revealed that 3-aminobenzamide, nicotinamide and 1,1-dimethyl urea were effective scavengers of this free radical. Conversely, 1,1-dimethyl urea, although not as potent as 3-aminobenzamide or nicotinamide, was found to inhibit poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase. These data indicate that these chemicals most likely attenuate alloxan-induced toxicity by scavenging the hydroxyl radical and diminish streptozotocin-induced toxicity by inactivation of the poly (ADP-ribose) system.

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