Journal of toxicology and environmental health

Comparative toxicity of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, and 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the rat: results of acute and subacute studies.

PMID 6620405


Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were dosed orally with 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) at levels that ranged from 200 to 4000 mg/kg, and were observed clinically for 14 d. LD50 values for 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, and 1,2,3,5-TCB were found to be 1470, 3105, and 2297 mg/kg, respectively, in male rats. In females, the LD50 values were found to be 1167 and 1727 mg/kg for 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-TCB, respectively. Clinical signs of toxicity included depression, flaccid muscle tone, prostration, piloerection, loose stool, hypothermia, dacryorrhea, coma, and death. In a subacute study, groups of 10 males and 10 females were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 5.0, 50, or 500 ppm 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-TCB for 28 d. No deaths or clinical signs of toxicity were observed, and neither growth rate nor food consumption was affected. At 500 ppm, 1,2,4,5- but not 1,2,3,4- or 1,2,3,5-TCB caused a significant increase in the liver weight and serum cholesterol of male and female rats. Hepatic microsomal aniline hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin deethylase were induced by 500 ppm 1,2,4,5-TCB. Hepatic microsomal aminopyrine demethylase activity was increased by the administration of this compound at 50 ppm and higher in males and at 500 ppm in the females. Rats fed 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-TCB at 500 ppm also showed a significant increase in aminopyrine demethylase activity. Moderate to severe histological changes were found in the liver, thyroid, kidney, and lungs of rats fed 500 ppm 1,2,4,5-TCB. Histological changes in the tissues produced by the administration of the 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-isomer were mild even at the highest dose levels. Tissue residue data showed that 1,2,4,5-TCB accumulated at much higher levels than the other two isomers. The results suggest that the position of chlorine substitution can affect the tissue accumulation and toxicity of chlorinated benzenes in rats.