The Journal of clinical investigation

Formation of diiodotyrosine from thyroxine. Ether-link cleavage, an alternate pathway of thyroxine metabolism.

PMID 6630509


Studies were performed to elucidate the nature of the pathway of hepatic thyroxine (T4) metabolism that is activated by inhibitors of liver catalase. For this purpose, the metabolism of T4 in homogenates of rat liver was monitored with T4 labeled with 125I either at the 5'-position of the outer-ring (125I-beta-T4) or uniformly in both the outer and inner rings (125I-U-T4). In homogenates incubated with 125I-beta-T4 in an atmosphere of O2, the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole greatly enhanced T4 degradation, promoting the formation of large proportions of 125I-labeled iodide (125I-I-) and chromatographically immobile origin material (125I-OM), but only a minute proportion of 125I-labeled 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (125I-T3) (T3 neogenesis). In an atmosphere of N2, in contrast, homogenates produced much larger proportions of 125I-T3, and aminotriazole had no effect. In incubations with 125I-U-T4, under aerobic conditions, control homogenates degraded T4 slowly; formation of 125I-labeled 3,5-diiodotyrosine (125I-DIT) was seen only occasionally and in minute proportions. However, in homogenates incubated under O2, but not N2, aminotriazole consistently elicited the formation of large proportions of 125I-DIT, indicating that the ether link of T4 was being cleaved by an O2-dependent process. Formation of 125I-DIT in the presence of aminotriazole and O2 was markedly inhibited by the substrates of peroxidase, aminoantipyrine, and guaiacol. GSH greatly attenuated the increase in DIT formation induced by aminotriazole, whereas the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activated the DIT-generating pathway, even in the absence of aminotriazole. Activation of the in vitro formation of 125I-DIT from 125I-U-T4 was also produced by the in vivo administration of aminotriazole or bacterial endotoxin, an agent that reduces hepatic catalase activity. Studies with 125I-DIT as substrate revealed it to be rapidly deiodinated by liver homogenates under aerobic conditions. Recovery of 125I-DIT from 125I-U-T4 was increased by the addition of the inhibitor of iodotyrosine dehalogenase, 3,5-dinitrotyrosine. However, as judged from studies conducted in parallel with radioiodine-labeled DIT and 125I-U-T4 as substrates, none of the factors that altered the proportion of 125I-DIT found after incubations with 125I-U-T4 did so by altering the degradation of the 125I-DIT formed. The factors that influenced DIT formation from T4 in rat liver had opposite effects on T3 neogenesis. Thus, aminotriazole, endotoxin, NEM, and an aerobic atmosphere, all of which enhanced DIT formation, were inhibitory to T3 neogenesis. In contrast, anaerobiosis and GSH inhibited ether-link cleavage of T4, but facilitated T3 neogenesis. The foregoing results suggest that a pathway for the ether-link cleavage of T4 to yield DIT is present in rat liver. Activity of this pathway, which appears to be peroxidase mediated, is inversely related to activity of the pathway for the T3 neogenesis. It is further suggested that this reciprocity reflects a reciprocal relationship between hepatic GSH and H2O2, the former increasing T3 formation and inhibiting DIT formation, and the latter producing opposite effects.

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3,5-Diiodo-L-tyrosine dihydrate, crystalline
C9H9I2NO3 · 2H2O