Journal of bacteriology

Galactose fermentation by Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris: pathways, products, and regulation.

PMID 6776093


All of the lactic streptococci examined except Streptococcus lactis ML8 fermented galactose to lactate, formate, acetate, and ethanol. The levels of pyruvate-formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated and reduced, respectively, in galactose-grown cells compared with glucose- or lactose-grown cells. Reduced intracellular levels of both the lactate dehydrogenase activator (fructose, 1,6-diphosphate) and pyruvate-formate lyase inhibitors (triose phosphates) appeared to be the main factors involved in the diversion of lactate to the other products. S. lactis ML8 produced only lactate from galactose, apparently due to the maintenance of high intracellular levels of fructose 1,6-diphosphate and triose phosphates. The growth rates of all 10 Streptococcus cremoris strains examined decreased markedly with galactose concentrations below about 30 mM. This effect appeared to be correlated with uptake predominantly by the low-affinity galactose phosphotransferase system and initial metabolism via the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. In contrast, with four of the five S. lactis strains examined, galactose uptake and initial metabolism involved more extensive use of the high-affinity galactose permease and Leloir pathway. With these strains the relative flux of galactose through the alternate pathways would depend on the exogenous galactose concentration.

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D-Tagatose 1,6-diphosphate lithium salt, ≥90.0% (TLC)
C6H14O12P2 · xLi+