Biochimica et biophysica acta

Cytotoxic liponucleotide analogs. II. Antitumor activity of CDP-diacylglycerol analogs containing the cytosine arabinoside moiety.

PMID 7459369


Among events limiting the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy are the general lack of preferential uptake of anticancer drugs by tumor cells and the occurrence of drug resistance. An approach has been undertaken to explore whether or not such events can be favorably altered or circumvented therapeutically by development of a new class of anticancer molecules, cytotoxic liponucleotide analogs. The design of cytotoxic liponucleotide analogs encompasses both biochemical and biophysical aspects of liponucleotide and glycerophospholipid structure and metabolism. Several cytotoxic liponucleotide analogs of cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDPdiacylglycerol/dCDPdiacylglycerol), containing the 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl moiety, were tested for antitumor activity. Multispecies ara-CDPdiacylglycerol (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine 5'-diphosphate diacylglycerol), which contains egg lecithin-derived mixed fatty acyl chains, was more active than 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), a clinically used anticancer drug, against leukemia L5178Y and P388 ascites cells in mice. At identical single doses (50 mg/kg per day times 4) administered intraperitoneally, ara-CDPdiacylglycerol prolonged the life spans of L5178Y tumor-bearing mice 93%, while ara-C prolonged life by 18%. Ara-CDPdiacylglycerol increased life spans of P388 tumor-bearing mice by 357% at doses of 50 mg/kg per day times 4; the maximum increase with ara-C was 159% (85 mg/kg per day times 4). Against a P388 ara-C-resistant cell line (P/Ara-C, kinase deficient) in mice, ara-CDPdiacylglycerol prolonged survival times by 34% at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day times 4 and by 55% at 75 mg/kg per day times 4; the drug was not active against two other ara-C-resistant murine leukemia mutants (CA 55, CA5b). With cell line-derived human colon carcinoma HCT-15 grown in mice immunosuppressed with anti-thymocyte serum, ara-CDPdiacylglycerol at a single daily dose of 50 mg/kg per day times 4 significantly reduced tumor weights to 21% of the controls; the same dose schedule of ara-C caused no observable reduction of tumor weights. Results of these preliminary antitumor evaluations indicate that cytotoxic liponucleotide analogs should be investigated further to determine their potential as antineoplastic molecules.

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