Microvascular research

Hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in lung endothelial and epithelial permeability--effect of adenylate cyclase stimulation and phosphodiesterase inhibition.

PMID 7476570


Neutrophil-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is believed to play an important role in inflammatory lung injury. We investigated the influence of pharmacological agents that increase intracellular c-AMP levels on endothelial and epithelial leakage in response to intravascular H2O2 challenge in buffer-perfused rabbit lungs. Endothelial permeability was assessed by determination of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) and lung weight gain. Measurement of the clearance rate of inhaled aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([99mTc]DTPA) from the lungs into the perfusion fluid was used as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability. Experiments were performed in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid to suppress H2O2-induced lung prostanoid generation and concomitant vasoconstriction. Under these conditions, H2O2 admixture to the perfusate (250 microM) caused a greater than eight-fold increase in Kfc values, resulting in > 30 g lung weight gain within 30 min in the absence of any significant vasopressor response. Pretreatment with the adenylate cyclase activators prostaglandin E1 (0.1 microM) and forskolin (0.1 microM), the dual phosphodiesterase type III/IV inhibitor zardaverine (10 microM) as well as combinations of these drugs all caused a nearly complete suppression of this early Kfc increase; and severe edema formation (> 30 g) was retarded to approximately 50-55 min. In addition to the microvascular leakage response, H2O2 caused a four- to five-fold increase in the [99mTc]DTPA clearance rate, starting within 15 min and culminating after approximately 35 min. Adenylate cyclase activation reduced this epithelial leakage response by approximately 30%, whereas zardaverine exerted no significant effect. We conclude that both microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial barrier function are severely compromised by intravascular H2O2 challenge in intact lungs. Pharmacological approaches to increase c-AMP levels, including both adenylate cyclase activation and phosphodiesterase inhibition, partially block the endothelial response and, to a lesser extent, the epithelial response.

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Zardaverine, phosphodiesterase inhibitor