Clinical chemistry

Determination of lead in urine and whole blood by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

PMID 8044988


A stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is described for the determination of lead (Pb) in urine and whole blood. The use of lithium bis(trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamate Pb(FDEDTC) as a chelating agent showed strong memory effect, restricting the range of Pb isotope ratios that can be measured in unknown samples. To overcome this carryover problem, we further derivatized the Pb(FDEDTC)2 chelate with 4-fluorophenyl magnesium bromide to form Pb(FC6H4)4. The sequential analyses of solutions of natural Pb and enriched 204Pb with Pb(FC6H4)4 chelate by GC-MS demonstrated no observable memory effect. Precision and accuracy of Pb isotope ratio measurements with Pb(FC6H4)4 were established, and the isotope dilution GC-MS method was validated by determining Pb concentrations in urine standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, urine and blood reference materials from the New York State Department of Health, and blood Pb survey samples from the College of American Pathologists.