Journal of medicinal chemistry

Synthesis, structural characterization, and antitumor properties of a novel class of large-ring platinum(II) chelate complexes incorporating the cis-1,4-diaminocyclohexane ligand in a unique locked boat conformation.

PMID 8064793


The first two analogs 5a,b of a new class of neutral large-ring square-planar Pt(II) chelate complexes of the generic structure [Pt(cis-1,4-dach)X2] were synthesized via a refined technique, structurally characterized by NMR (1H, 13C, 195Pt), FAB mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, and evaluated for antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in sensitive and Pt-resistant murine leukemia cell systems. An X-ray crystal structure analysis confirmed that [Pt(cis-1,4-dach)malonate] 5b is monomeric and that the cis-1,4-diaminocyclohexane (dach) ligand is incorporated in a unique and previously unknown locked boat conformation. Complex 5b crystallized as colorless rectangular plates in the orthorhombic space group Pcmn with Z = 4 and the lattice parameters a = 6.239(1) A, b = 9.965(2) A, and c = 18.437(4) A. Important structural parameters are Pt-O = 2.024(5) A, Pt-N = 2.021(6) A, N-Pt-N = 100 degrees, and N-Pt-O = 85 degrees; R = 0.0515, Rw = 0.0635. Antitumor results in murine tumor models show that the parent molecule 5a (X2 = 2 Cl) (a) is more dose potent than cisplatin against the leukemias and solid tumors examined, (b) possesses significant activity against cisplatin-resistant leukemias, but exhibits partial cross-resistance with cisplatin, and (c) may possess a spectrum of activity different from that of cisplatin. Antitumor test results in vitro indicate that (a) 5a is at least equivalent to cisplatin in dose potency and effectiveness in the leukemia cell systems studied except in the [Pt(1,2-dach)Cl2]-resistant L1210 cell line, (b) the cisplatin-resistant leukemia cell systems exhibit partial cross-resistance to 5a, (c) 5a possesses either comparable or greater cytotoxicity than the reference complexes, CI-973 (3) and bis(platinum) complex 4, and (d) 5a is more effective (approximately 18-fold) than [Pt(1R,2R-dach)Cl2] 2 in inhibiting growth in the Pt(1,2-dach)-resistant L1210 cell line, suggesting that [Pt(cis-1,4-dach)Cl2] is either not recognized as or is not acting as a "typical" Pt(dach) complex. The encouraging antitumor activity of 5a, coupled with a 10-fold higher aqueous solubility compared to [Pt(1R,2R-dach)-Cl2] 2 warrants the following future studies: synthesis of selected analogs, elucidating the nature of Pt-DNA binding sites, the mechanism of action, and the mechanistic basis for the lack of cross-resistance of [Pt(cis-1,4-dach)Cl2] against the [Pt(1,2-dach)Cl2]-resistant L1210 cell line.

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trans-1,4-Diaminocyclohexane, ≥98.0% (GC)