Archives of toxicology

Biomonitoring of aromatic amines. IV: Use of hemoglobin adducts to demonstrate the bioavailability of cleavage products from diarylide azo pigments in vivo.

PMID 8166610


The release and availability of the carcinogenic component of the soluble azo dye Direct Red 46 and the insoluble azo pigment Pigment Yellow 17 were analyzed in Wistar rats using hemoglobin adducts as a dosimeter. The levels of hemoglobin adducts were found to be very low. Intestinal cleavage and release of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (3,3'-DCB) from Direct Red 46 and Pigment Yellow 17 was calculated to be 3% and 0.6% of the dose, respectively, in a 4-week feeding study. It is proposed to measure blood samples from exposed humans in order to test the applicability of the method and eventually to use it for controlling human exposure to the carcinogenic colorant components.