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The Journal of biological chemistry

Structure of lipid A component of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli lipopolysaccharide. Unique nonphosphorylated lipid A containing 2-amino-2-deoxygluconate, galacturonate, and glucosamine.


PMID 8182046

Abstract

The structure of lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (wild type strain CE3) was investigated by alkylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrospray and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the de-O-acylated lipid A. The lipid A carbohydrate backbone was shown to be a trisaccharide containing galacturonic acid, glucosamine, and the unique sugar 2-amino-2-deoxygluconic acid, previously unreported in lipopolysaccharides. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ethylation analyses revealed that the galacturonic acid is alpha-1,4-linked to the glucosamine, while the amino aldonic acid residue, which may exist as the 1,5-lactone, is attached as an aglycone to the glucosamine and, thus, occupies the reducing end of the molecule. The resulting backbone is hydrophilic and analogous to the commonly observed bisphosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide from enteric bacterial lipopolysaccharides in that both the nonreducing and reducing ends carry negatively charged substituents. The fatty acids of the R. leguminosarum lipid A are attached both as O- and N-acyl substituents to glucosamine and 2-aminogluconate. All fatty acids are hydroxylated consisting of 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH-C14.0), 3-hydroxypentadecanoate (3-OH-C15.0), 3-hydroxypalmitate (3-OH-C16.0), 3-hydroxystearate (3-OH-C18.0), and 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate (27-OH-C28.0) in the approximate mole ratio 3:0.2:1:0.6:1. Unlike lipid As from enteric bacteria, the R. leguminosarum lipid A lacks 3-acyloxyacyl substituents; however, the long chain 27-hydroxy fatty acid carries ester-linked beta-hydroxybutyrate at the 27-hydroxy position. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the de-O-acylated lipid A demonstrated the presence of 2 molecular species that differ by 28 mass units due to fatty acid heterogeneity at the two amide linkages. One species carries amide-linked 3-OH-C14.0 and 3-OH-C16.0; the second species carries 3-OH-C14.0 and 3-OH-C18.0. Each molecular species also exists as the aldonolactone, yielding molecular ions at ((M+H)+)-18. The heterogeneity in the amide-linked fatty acids further distinguishes the Rhizobium lipid A from enteric lipid As.

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