Journal of neurochemistry

Effects of gangliosides GM1 and GD1a on GAP-43 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in isolated growth cones.

PMID 8263528


Phosphorylation of the nervous system-specific protein GAP-43 in growth cones in vivo increases as the growth cones near their targets, at a time when the gangliosides GM1 and GD1a are being accumulated in the growth cone membrane, thus raising the possibility that the gangliosides could modulate GAP-43 behavior. We used a subcellular fraction of intact isolated growth cones to show that both GM1 and GD1a affected the calcium-dependent posttranslational regulation of GAP-43 in several similar ways. Both gangliosides induced rapid incorporation of phosphate into GAP-43; however, the induction was undetectable with our antibody 2G12 that is specific for kinase C-phosphorylated GAP-43. Furthermore, neither ganglioside stimulated kinase C activity in isolated growth cones, suggesting that the rapid phosphorylation may not be on Ser41, the kinase C site. However, both gangliosides did induce a slower accumulation of GAP-43 phosphorylated on Ser41, apparently by inhibiting a phosphatase. Finally, calcium-dependent proteolysis of GAP-43 was also stimulated by both GM1 and GD1a. In contrast, GD1a, but not GM1, caused the redistribution of GAP-43 into the isolated growth cone cytoskeleton. The results demonstrate that both gangliosides can modulate the calcium-dependent regulation of GAP-43.

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