Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Identification of a novel granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP-2) from human tumor cells. In vitro and in vivo comparison with natural forms of GRO, IP-10, and IL-8.

PMID 8423327


Stimulated human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were used as a source of granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP). In addition to the previously isolated GCP-1/IL-8, natural forms of GRO alpha, GRO gamma, and IP-10 were purified and identified by amino acid sequence analysis. Further, a novel GCP, GCP-2, was isolated in its natural form (6 kDa) and was found to be structurally related to the other members of the IL-8 family. GRO alpha, IP-10, and GCP-2 showed heterogeneity, in that several forms of each protein were recovered. These differed in truncation at the amino terminus. Reverse phase HPLC allowed us to separate four such different forms of GCP-2. These tumor-derived factors were compared in granulocyte activation and chemotaxis assays. IL-8 induced neutrophil gelatinase B release at 2 nM, but GRO alpha and GCP-2 showed a 5- to 10-fold lower specific activity. When the migration of granulocytes through polycarbonate micropore membranes was measured, GCP-2 and GRO alpha had a maximal chemotactic index comparable to that of IL-8. The minimal effective dose for GCP-2 and GRO alpha was 3 to 10 nM, whereas the specific activity of IL-8 was at least 10-fold higher. IP-10 was not active in this assay at doses up to 100 nM. Finally, in vivo chemotaxis was measured by using granulocyte recruitment in the rabbit skin model. After intradermal injection of 200 ng/site, GCP-2 provoked a significant granulocyte infiltration, albeit to a lesser extent than did IL-8 and GRO alpha. GCP-2 did not attract monocytes in vivo nor did it induce the cells in vitro to migrate or to produce enzyme. In conclusion, this study reveals a new member of the IL-8 family and shows that these related inflammatory mediators possess different potencies and efficacies towards granulocytes.