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Cardiovascular drugs and therapy

Clinicopharmacological reappraisal of the potency of diuretics.


PMID 8435374

Abstract

From a clinicopharmacological standpoint, the urinary excretory potency of diuretics should be assessed comparatively on the basis of the changes in 24-hour natriuresis, with respect to 24-hour natriuresis after placebo, caused by single oral doses administered to healthy adult subjects who are in habitual and steady-state external sodium balance. The potency of various formulations of loop (e.g., furosemide), of early distal tubular (e.g., the thiazides), and of potassium-retaining diuretics, as well as of several combinations of diuretics, has been evaluated in a series of studies. Two formulations of loop diuretics (muzolimine 20 mg and torasemide 2.5 mg) are definitely nondiuretic. The majority of the other formulations of loop diuretics studied are, in general, comparatively less potent than most of the common formulations of early distal tubular diuretics studied. As a general rule, most common formulations of early distal tubular diuretics are at least not less potent than the majority of common formulations of loop diuretics. Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg and furosemide 80 mg have similar potencies. Loop diuretics increase mean renal sodium output strikingly within the first few (0-6) hours after dosing, but this forced excretion is followed by a rebound with respect to postplacebo mean urinary sodium flow; the rebound usually takes place between 6 and 24 hours after dosing. However, no rebound in mean urinary sodium flow occurs during the 24 hours following a single dose of a distal tubular diuretic; these substances increase urinary sodium excretion with lower maximal intensity but more protractedly than loop diuretics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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