Human mutation

Molecular basis of type I (tyrosinase-related) oculocutaneous albinism: mutations and polymorphisms of the human tyrosinase gene.

PMID 8477259


Type I (tyrosinase related) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) results from mutations of the tyrosinase gene on chromosome 11q that lead to reduced or absent melanin pigment synthesis. The phenotype of Type I OCA is broad, ranging from a total lack to only a moderate reduction of melanin, and the phenotypic variation is associated with different mutant alleles at the tyrosinase locus. A total of 36 mutations have been identified in Type I OCA including 24 missense, 4 nonsense, and 8 frameshift mutations. The majority of affected individuals have been compound heterozygotes with different maternal and paternal alleles. Six polymorphic sites for haplotype analysis have been identified in the tyrosinase gene including 2 in the promoter region, 2 in the coding region associated with alternative amino acids in the protein, and 2 RFLPs in the first intron.