Toxicology letters

Coupling of computer modeling with in vitro methodologies to reduce animal usage in toxicity testing.

PMID 8516756


The use of in vitro data to support the development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and to reduce the requirement for in vivo testing is demonstrated by three examples. In the first example, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, in vitro studies comparing metabolism and tissue response in rodents and primates made it possible to obtain definitive data for a human risk assessment without resorting to additional in vivo studies with primates. In the second example, a PBPK model for organophosphate esters was developed in which the parameters defining metabolism, tissue partitioning, and enzyme inhibition were all characterized by in vitro studies, and the rest of the model parameters were established from the literature. The resulting model was able to provide a coherent description of enzyme inhibition following both acute and chronic exposures in mice, rats, and humans. In the final example, the carcinogenic risk assessment for methylene chloride was refined by the incorporation of in vitro data on human metabolism into a PBPK model.