Renal failure

Mechanism of sex-related differences in nephrotoxicity of 1.2-dichloropropane in rats.

PMID 8570864


The contribution of testosterone to the nephrotoxic effects of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) was assessed by a series of castration and sex hormone replacement experiments on Wistar rats. The nephrotoxic action of DCP was evaluated by measuring the accumulation of organic anion and release of aspartate aminotransferase into the incubation medium using a renal cortical slice model. Our data show that sex, castration, and testosterone pretreatment are factors that influence the effect of DCP on renal cortical slices of rats Males appear to be more sensitive to nephrotoxic effects of DCP than females, male castration prevents the nephrotoxic effects of DCP, and pretreatment of females and castrated males with testosterone increases the susceptibility to DCP. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the role of sex differences in the expression of enzymes participating in Phase I and Phase II detoxication reactions in order to explain the differences in sensitivity of the two genders to the nephrotoxic action of DCP. Our results implicate gender-specific expression of cytochrome P-450 in the kidneys as a predominant factor that determines the different susceptibilities of male and female rats to the nephrotoxic effect of DCP. We propose that the oxidation of DCP by CYP IIE1 is the first saturable and limiting step in the metabolic activation of DCP to nephrotoxic metabolites. It appears that, despite the fact that the nephrotoxic effect of DCP is determined mainly by its cysteine-conjugated metabolites, gluthathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in kidney are not directly related to increased androgen-related susceptibility to DCP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)