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Pediatrics

Measles antibody in vaccinated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children.


PMID 8628602

Abstract

The goals of this study were to evaluate the proportion of previously vaccinated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected children with detectable postvaccination measles antibody; to assess risk factors for vaccine failure; and to evaluate the response to reimmunization. A total of 81 perinatally HIV-infected children receiving medical care in the Bronx, New York who had previously received measles vaccine were enrolled. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV class, lymphocyte subsets, and measles antibody were determined upon enrollment. Additional data abstracted from medical records included dates and number of prior measles vaccinations and CDC HIV class at the time of vaccination. Measles antibody was determined by microneutralization enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at time of study was 42 months (range, 9 to 168 months). Overall, 58 (72%) subjects had detectable measles antibody (microneutralization ELISA titer > 1:5). Children studied within 1 year of vaccination were more likely to have detectable measles antibody than children evaluated more than 1 year after vaccination (83% vs 52%, P < .01). The proportion of children with detectable measles antibody was higher among children with no or moderate immunosuppression compared to those with severe immunosuppression when immune status was based on CD4%. Children vaccinated at 6 to 11 months of age appeared to have a higher proportion of detectable measles antibody than those who received a first measles vaccination after age 1. Only 1 (14%) of 7 previously vaccinated children who were seronegative or had very low titers experienced a four-fold rise in measles antibody when reimmunized. These results support current recommendations to vaccinate HIV-infected children against measles. The proportion of children with detectable measles antibody among vaccinated HIV-infected children is considerably lower than in vaccinated healthy children. HIV-infected children may respond better to measles vaccine when it is administered before the first birthday. From our limited data it appears that reimmunization of previously vaccinated HIV-infected children with moderate to severe immunosuppression does not result in an antibody recall response.