The Journal of biological chemistry

Lysine-based cluster mannosides that inhibit ligand binding to the human mannose receptor at nanomolar concentration.

PMID 8910412


In search of synthetic high affinity ligands for the mannose receptor, we synthesized a series of lysine-based oligomannosides containing two (M2L) to six (M6L5) terminal alpha-D-mannose groups that are connected with the backbone by flexible elongated spacers (16 A). The synthesized cluster mannosides were all able to displace binding of biotinylated ribonuclease B and tissue-type plasminogen activator to isolated human mannose receptor. The affinity of these cluster mannosides for the mannose receptor was continuously enhanced from 18-23 microM to 0.5-2.6 nM, with mannose valencies increasing from two to six. On average, expansion of the cluster mannoside with an additional alpha-D-mannose group resulted in a 10-fold increase in its affinity for the mannose receptor. M3L2 to M6L5 displayed negative cooperative inhibition of ligand binding to the mannose receptor, suggesting that binding of these mannosides involves multiple binding sites. The nanomolar affinity of the most potent ligand, the hexamannoside M6L5 makes it the most potent synthetic cluster mannoside for the mannose receptor yet developed. As a result of its high affinity and accessible synthesis, M6L5 not only is a powerful tool to study the mechanism of ligand binding by the mannose receptor, but it is also a promising targeting device to accomplish cell-specific delivery of genes and drugs to liver endothelial cells or macrophages in bone marrow, lungs, spleen, and atherosclerotic plaques.