Electrokinetic chromatography in suppressed electroosmotic flow environment: use of a charged cyclodextrin for the separation of enantiomers and geometric isomers.

PMID 8957184


Electrokinetic chromatography (EKC), with negatively-charged cyclodextrins (NCDs) added to the buffer, was conducted in polyacrylamide-coated columns under suppression of electroosmotic flow. The equations of migration and resolution for neutral solutes in this mode of chromatography, which for brevity we term NCD-EKC, are presented. The chiral sulfated cyclodextrin, beta-CD-SBE (IV), used in this study is anionic over the entire pH range accessible to capillary electrophoresis, and the coated columns are stable and provide reproducible performance in the pH range 2.5-8.8. Optimum separation was obtained in the pH range where the solutes are neutral. The incorporation of an alkyl spacer between the sulfate ion and the rim of the cyclodextrin allows an unhindered approach and inclusion of neutral solutes in the cyclodextrin cavity. Solute migration time is inversely proportional to the concentration of the chiral selector. Separation (relative migration time difference) increases with decreasing chiral selector concentration and approaches a maximum, beyond which further decreases in chiral selector concentration result in broad peaks and loss of resolution. A chiral selector concentration of 1% in a 10 mM phosphate buffer produced excellent separation of amino acids and dipeptide enantiomers. In addition to being chiral selectors, cyclodextrins are also known as shape selectors. NCD-EKC is particularly suited for the separation of positional isomers of hydrophobic solutes. The separation of aflatoxin isomers and chlorophenol congeners is presented. In the separation of chlorophenols the more hydrophobic trichlorophenols eluted first and the least hydrophobic, phenol, eluted last.