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European heart journal

Secondary preventive potential of lipid-lowering drugs. The Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT).


PMID 8960446

Abstract

Current experience from coronary angiographic trials using different treatment regimens such as lifestyle changes, resins, nicotinic acid and statins, shows that progression of atheroma can be retarded, and that regression can sometimes be induced, by a marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol. Young post-myocardial infarction patients, however, usually exhibit a multiplicity of metabolic risk factors with dyslipidaemias, predominantly hypertriglyceridaemia, and disturbances of glucose-insulin homeostasis and of the haemostatic system. These factors, together coupled with coronary angiographic data showing that the degree of dyslipidaemia is related to the extent and degree of coronary atherosclerosis, and the fact that rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis was foreseen in this group of patients, resulted in the initiation of the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT) in 1985. BECAIT was a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of bezafibrate (200 mg three times daily) and dietary intervention in dyslipidaemic male survivors of myocardial infarction below 45 years of age. The angiographic analysis included 81 patients (42 bezafibrate and 39 placebo) who underwent baseline and at least one post-treatment angiogram, at 2 and 5 years. Changes in mean minimum lumen diameter indicated that there was 0.13 mm less (95% Cl: 0.10; 0.15) disease progression in focal lesions in the bezafibrate group than in the placebo group (P = 0.049). Parallel, but non-statistically significant, treatment effects were observed for mean segment diameter and percent stenosis. Three patients treated with bezafibrate and 11 patients in the placebo group suffered coronary events during the course of the trial (P = 0.02 logrank test). The angiographic effects of bezafibrate were accompanied by statistically significant reductions in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly reduced and HDL-cholesterol concentration increased but there was no net change in LDL-cholesterol. These findings show that bezafibrate slowed the progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis to a degree that is comparable to that achieved with the statins in angiographic trials such as MAAS and REGRESS. Bezafibrate also reduced the occurrence of coronary events in young post-infarction victims. Like BECAIT, analyses of data from the NHLBI type II study, CLAS, POSCH and MARS provide evidence for the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of coronary artery disease. Retardation of progression of atherosclerosis and a reduction in coronary events is, therefore, possible without reducing LDL-cholesterol.