International journal for parasitology

The kinetic disposition of pyrantel citrate and pamoate and their efficacy against pyrantel-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs.

PMID 9024887


The pharmacokinetic disposition of pyrantel after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration as the citrate and p.o. administration as the pamoate salt was determined in pigs. Following i.v. administration pyrantel was quickly cleared from the bloodstream, exhibiting a terminal half-life of 1.75 +/- 0.19 h and a residence time (MRT) of 2.54 +/- 0.27 h. After p.o. administration as the citrate salt, the absorption time (MAT) of pyrantel was 2.38 +/- 0.25 h and although significant quantities of pyrantel were absorbed (mean bioavailability of 41%) the rapid clearance resulted in a MRT of only 4.92 +/- 0.36 h. By comparison, the significantly extended MAT of the less soluble pamoate salt resulted in reduced circulating concentrations and a significantly lower mean bioavailability of 16%. The poor efficacy of pyrantel citrate against nematodes inhabiting the large intestine of pigs is therefore suggested to result from insufficient quantities of drug passaging to the site of infection. When tested against pyrantel-resistant adult Oesophagostomum dentatum the mean efficacy of pyrantel citrate was only 23%, whereas the efficacy of the lesser absorbed pyrantel pamoate was 75%. These results indicate that for maximum activity pyrantel should be administered to pigs as the pamoate salt.