Selectin inhibition: synthesis and evaluation of novel sialylated, sulfated and fucosylated oligosaccharides, including the major capping group of GlyCAM-1.

PMID 9061367


Selectins interact with glycoconjugate ligands in important normal and pathological situations. While high affinity recognition of natural ligands is associated with alpha 1-3(4)fucosylated, alpha 2-3sialylated (and/or sulfated) lactosamine sequences, small oligosaccharides that potently inhibit the selectins have not been found. One possibility suggested by other investigators is that high affinity may require unusual sequences not yet tested, for example, the "major capping group" (6'-sulfo-sialyl Le(x)) of the L-selectin ligand GlyCAM-1. To explore this possibility, we synthesized a spectrum of novel synthetic and semisynthetic oligosaccharides related to those on natural ligands. In studying these molecules, we noted that binding of recombinant soluble selectins to immobilized sialyl Le(a) or 3'-sulfo-Le(x) is markedly inhibited by concentrations of chloride above the physiological range. This indicates the ionic nature of the interactions, and shows that buffers typically used in screening assays for inhibitors are not optimal. Using parameters that more closely approximate physiological conditions, we confirmed that alpha 2-3-linked sialic acids, and alpha 1-3(4)fucosylation are important for recognition. Similar results obtained with both types of immobilized targets for the three selectins indicated that the binding sites for sialic acid and sulfate are very close, or identical. While O-sulfate esters mostly improved L- and P-selectin recognition, effects depended upon their position and number. Furthermore, sulfation can also impart some "negative" specificity: the major capping group does not interact with E-selectin. The branched Core 2 sequence seemed to enhance L- and P-selectin binding, however, the best inhibitors still appeared to be sialyl Le(a) and 3'-sulfo-Le(x), with the aglycone group of the latter affecting binding. Of particular note, the "major capping group" of GlyCAM-1 was not an unusually potent nor highly selective inhibitor of L-selectin, even when studying the interaction of L-selectin with native GlyCAM-1 itself.

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Lewis-A trisaccharide 3′-sulfate sodium salt, ≥95.0% (TLC)