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Human mutation

Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of diseases of bone, cartilage, and blood vessels.


PMID 9101290

Abstract

This review summarizes the data on 278 different mutations found to date in the genes for types I, II, III, IX, X, and XI collagens from 317 apparently unrelated patients. A majority (217 mutations; 78% of the total) of the mutations are single-base and either change the codon of a critical amino acid (63%), or lead to abnormal RNA splicing (13%). Most of the amino acid substitutions are those of a bulkier amino acid for the obligatory glycine of the repeating-Gly-X-Y-sequence of the collagen triple helix (155; 56%). Altogether, 26 different mutations (9.4% of the mutations) occur in more than one unrelated individual. The 65 patients in whom the 26 mutations were characterized constitute almost one-fifth (20.5%) of the 317 patients analyzed. The mutations in types I, II, III, IX, X, and XI collagens cause a wide spectrum of diseases of bone, cartilage, and blood vessels, including osteogenesis imperfecta, a variety of chondrodysplasias, types IV and VII of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and, rarely, some forms of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and familial aneurysms.