Drug and chemical toxicology

Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines.

PMID 9292276


The metabolism of acetaldehyde (ACA), benzaldehyde (BA), propionaldehyde (PA) and valeraldehyde (VA) has been studied in two hepatoma cell lines, the rat HTC and mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The cytotoxicity of the four aldehydes to these two cell lines has been compared. The end-points for evaluating cytotoxicity were 1) total macromolecular content (TMC) of confluent cultures, and 2) colony forming ability of dividing cells. These two assay systems had different sensitivities for the toxicity of aldehydes, probably due to different numbers of target cells. The activities of aldehyde dehydrogenases (NAD- and NADP-dependent, ALDH), alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase were markedly greater in the HTC cell line compared to the Hepa 1c1c7 cell line, especially with BA as substrate. The cytotoxicities of aldehydes were generally stronger in the HTC cell line than in the Hepa 1c1c7 cell line; with the CF test. Particularly, BA was highly toxic to the HTC cells, which possessed the highest ALDH levels. Moreover, the treatment with (diethylamino)benzaldehyde, an ALDH inhibitor, completely abolished the toxicity of BA. Taken together, all these findings suggest that several cell lines expressing different aldehyde metabolizing activities could be used especially in the pre-screening phase to distinguish the metabolism-dependent cytotoxic effects from the metabolism independent effects.

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