The EMBO journal

Interaction of furin in immature secretory granules from neuroendocrine cells with the AP-1 adaptor complex is modulated by casein kinase II phosphorylation.

PMID 9305628


The composition of secretory granules in neuroendocrine and endocrine cells is determined by two sorting events; the first in the trans-Golgi complex (TGN), the second in the immature secretory granule (ISG). Sorting from the ISG, which may be mediated by the AP-1 type adaptor complex and clathrin-coated vesicles, occurs during ISG maturation. Here we show that furin, a ubiquitously expressed, TGN/endosomal membrane endoprotease, is present in the regulated pathway of neuroendocrine cells where it is found in ISGs. By contrast, TGN38, a membrane protein that is also routed through the TGN/endosomal system does not enter ISGs. Furin, however, is excluded from mature secretory granules, suggesting that the endoprotease is retrieved from the clathrin-coated ISGs. Consistent with this, we show that the furin cytoplasmic domain interacts with AP-1, a component of the TGN/ISG-localized clathrin sorting machinery. Interaction between AP-1 and furin is dependent on phosphorylation of the enzyme's cytoplasmic domain by casein kinase II. Finally, in support of a requirement for the phosphorylation-dependent association of furin with AP-1, expression of furin mutants that mimic either the phosphorylated or unphosphorylated forms of the endoprotease in AtT-20 cells demonstrates that the integrity of the CKII sites is necessary for removal of furin from the regulated pathway.