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Journal of neuroimmunology

Regulation of glutamate in cultures of human monocytic THP-1 and astrocytoma U-373 MG cells.


PMID 9307240

Abstract

Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is neurotoxic at high concentrations. Neuroglial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, play an important role in regulating its extracellular levels. Cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells increased their glutamate secretion following 18 and 68 h exposure to the inflammatory mediators zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. Cultured astrocytoma U-373 MG cells increased their glutamate secretion following similar exposure to zymosan and PMA. DL-Alpha-aminopimelic acid, an inhibitor of the glutamate secretion system, reduced extracellular glutamate in both cell culture systems, while the high-affinity glutamate uptake inhibitors D-Aspartic acid, DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid and L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid increased extracellular glutamate in U-373 MG, but not THP-1 cell cultures. In co-cultures of THP-1 and U-373 MG cells, extracellular glutamate levels were increased significantly by the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide (1-40) and were decreased significantly by the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. These data indicate that inflammatory stimuli may increase extracellular glutamate while antiinflammatory drugs decrease it.

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C4H7NO5