American journal of medical genetics

Glycogen storage disease type 1a in Israel: biochemical, clinical, and mutational studies.

PMID 9332655


Glycogen storage disease type 1a (von Gierke disease, GSD 1a) is caused by the deficiency of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity which catalyzes the final common step of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The recent cloning of the G6Pase cDNA and characterization of the human G6Pase gene enabled the characterization of the mutations causing GSD 1a. This, in turn, allows the introduction of a noninvasive DNA-based diagnosis that provides reliable carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we report the biochemical and clinical characteristics as well as mutational analyses of 12 Israeli GSD 1a patients of different families, who represent most GSD 1a patients in Israel. The mutations, G6Pase activity, and glycogen content of 7 of these patients were reported previously. The biochemical data and clinical findings of all patients were similar and compatible with those described in other reports. All 9 Jewish patients, as well as one Muslim Arab patient, presented the R83C mutation. Two Muslim Arab patients had the V166G mutation which was not found in other patients' populations. The V166G mutation, which was introduced into the G6Pase cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis following transient expression in COS-1 cells, was shown to cause complete inactivation of the G6Pase. The characterization of all GSD 1a mutations in the Israeli population lends itself to carrier testing in these families as well as to prenatal diagnosis, which was carried out in 2 families. Since all Ashkenzai Jewish patients harbor the same mutation, our study suggests that DNA-based diagnosis may be used as an initial diagnostic step in Ashkenazi Jews suspected of having GSD 1a, thereby avoiding liver biopsy.